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Robot commonly used motor analysis and differences
- Nov 27, 2017 -

This article focuses on the general motor, gear motor, stepper motor, servo motor servo refers to the DC micro-motor, usually we are also exposed to the majority of DC. Motor learning is very deep, this article is only for beginners generally talk about making a variety of motors commonly used in robots.

Motor, commonly known as "motor", refers to an electromagnetic device that converts or transmits electrical energy according to the law of electromagnetic induction. Motor also known as (commonly known as motor), in the circuit with the letter "M" (the old standard with "D") said. Its main role is to generate driving torque, as a power source for electrical appliances or various machinery, the generator in the circuit with the letter "G" said.

Ordinary motor

Ordinary motor is more time we are more motor, electric toys, razors, etc. which have. This motor has too fast speed, torque is too small, generally only two pins, the positive and negative battery connected to the two pins will turn up, and then the battery was positive and negative and then the other two Pin on the motor will reverse.

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Ordinary motor on toy car

Gear motor

Geared motor is a common motor with a gear box, so that reduces the speed, increased torque, making the general motor and some more extensive use of space.

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Micro gear reducer motor

Stepper motor

Stepper motor is the electrical pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement of the open-loop control element stepper motor parts. In the case of non-overload, the motor speed, stop position depends only on the pulse signal frequency and the number of pulses, and not affected by load changes, when the stepper drive receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor press The set direction is rotated by a fixed angle, called the "step angle," and its rotation is carried out step by step at a fixed angle. By controlling the pulse number to control the angular displacement, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; the same time by controlling the pulse frequency to control the motor speed and acceleration of rotation, so as to achieve the purpose of speed.


Servo is mainly composed of shell, circuit board, coreless motor, gear and position detector. Its working principle is the receiver sends a signal to the steering gear, the circuit board through the IC to determine the direction of rotation, and then drive the coreless motor began to rotate through the reduction gear to power transmission arm, while the position detector to send back the signal , To determine whether it has reached the positioning. In fact, the position detector is a variable resistor, the resistance value will also change when the steering gear rotates. By detecting the resistance value, the rotation angle can be known.

Servo specifications provided by the manufacturer, will contain the dimensions (mm), torque (kg / cm), speed (seconds / 60 & deg;), test voltage (V) and weight (g) and other basic information. Torque unit is kg / cm, which means that the arm length of 1 cm, can lift a few kilograms of heavy objects. This is the concept of arm, so the longer the arm length, the smaller the torque. The unit of speed is sec / 60 & deg ;, meaning the time required for the servo to rotate 60 & deg ;.

Servo motor, also known as the implementation of the motor, in the automatic control system, as the implementation of components, the received electrical signal into the motor shaft angular displacement or angular velocity output. Divided into DC and AC servo motor two categories, the main feature is that when the signal voltage is zero, no rotation phenomenon, with the torque increases speed and uniform decline.

servo motor

Servo mainly by pulse to locate, basically can be understood that the servo motor receives a pulse, it will rotate a pulse corresponding to the angle, in order to achieve displacement, because the servo motor itself has a pulse function, so each servo motor Rotating an angle will produce the corresponding number of pulses, thus forming a response with the pulse received by the servomotor, or by closing the loop so that the system knows how many pulses are sent to the servomotor and how many pulses are received at the same time In this way, it is possible to control the rotation of the motor very precisely for precise positioning, up to 0.001 mm.

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DC servo motor is divided into brush and brushless motor. Brushed motor low cost, simple structure, large starting torque, wide speed range, easy to control, need maintenance, but inconvenient maintenance (for carbon brush), resulting in electromagnetic interference, environmental requirements. So it can be used for cost-sensitive general industrial and commercial applications.

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