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Design Of New Robots With Omni-directional Motion And Obstacle Avoidance
- Dec 21, 2017 -

With the rapid development of robotics, robotics inspection, service and dynamic monitoring are becoming increasingly feasible in building environments such as logistics warehouses, passenger terminals, large conference centers, hotels, residential quarters and other building environments. Robots will become robotics Serve one of the important areas of human application. The typical characteristic of these building environments is that the ground is smooth and flat. However, people and things in the environment are dynamically and randomly distributed, the utilization rate of the ground space is high, the patrol passage is narrow and accompanied by some small obstacles. This requires that the robot mobile platform working in this environment is best able to meet the plane of 3 degrees of freedom and omnidirectional movement with a certain obstacle function.

    Omni-directional mobile refers to the movement system does not change the relative posture of their institutions, does not rely on the traditional steering mechanism to achieve movement in any direction of the movement characteristics, which can be simultaneously in the plane at the same time, left and right (left and right Horizontal movement) and three degrees of freedom to rotate on the spot. Overcome the traditional layout of the four-wheel system can not move laterally and the defects of rotation. Easy to shuttle in a narrow and crowded and more obstructive space, flexible and complete a variety of tasks, especially for moving in the building environment.

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     At present, the movement modes of robots operating in and outside buildings in China and abroad mainly include wheeled, crawler, legged, snake-shaped and compound types. The crawler has the characteristics of low pressure on the ground, the ability to attach on the soft ground and the good performance of passing the stairs, the obstacle of translatability and high self-resetting ability. However, the crawler moves slower and consumes more power, causing some damage to the ground when turning. Although legged robots can meet some special performance requirements, but its structure more freedom, complex structure, difficult to control, power consumption, high cost, not easy to promote. Snake forms and leaps although in some places (such as complex environment, special environment), obstacle, mobility has unique advantages, but there are also some obvious shortcomings, such as carrying capacity and poor motion stability. Although the complex robot can adapt to complex environments or some special environments, some even can be deformed, but its structure and control are more complex. Wheeled robots with large load, simple mechanism, relatively easy to drive and control, walking speed, high work efficiency, but the obstacle is poor performance.

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     In this paper, we design a new type of robot mobile platform for the operation characteristics of building environment. The robot through the four Mecanum wheel and drive motor and obstacle obstacle suspension position, without separate steering mechanism, only by using the speed between the wheels, steering with the platform to achieve full range of motion. An elevated obstacle avoidance mechanism coupled by a double crank and a spring can achieve very good steep slope obstacle avoidance function and is capable of adaptively and passively crossing the obstacle height with high obstacle clearance efficiency. The entire system is simple and reliable mechanical structure, easy to control.

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