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What Is A DC Motor?
- Oct 23, 2017 -

A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor.


Anyone who has ever played with magnets knows that they are polarized, with a positive and a negative side. The attraction between opposite poles and the repulsion of similar poles can easily be felt, even with relatively weak magnets. A DC motor uses these properties to convert electricity into motion. As the magnets within the motor attract and repel one another, the motor turns.


A DC motor requires at least one electromagnet, which switches the current flow as the motor turns, changing its polarity to keep it running. The other magnet or magnets can either be permanent magnets or other electromagnets. Often, the electromagnet is located in the center of the motor and turns within the permanent magnets, but this arrangement is not required.


To imagine a simple DC motor2845 Dc Coreless Motors, a person can think of a wheel divided into two halves between two magnets. The wheel in this example is the electromagnet. The two outer magnets are permanent, one positive and one negative. For this example, the left magnet is negatively charged and the right magnet is positively charged.


Their simple design and reliability makes them a good choice for many different uses, as well as a fascinating way to study the effects of magnetic fields.


DC motors were the first type widely used, since they could be powered from existing direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor's speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight motor used for portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles, elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills. 

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